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Autor: Gudmund R. Iversen
ISBN-13: 9780387946108
Einband: Buch
Seiten: 735
Gewicht: 1552 g
Format: 242x200x40 mm
Sprache: Englisch
Erscheinungsdatum: 30.04.1997

Statistics

Springer Undergraduate Textbooks in Statistics
The Conceptual Approach
Contents: Statistics: Randomness and Regularities; Collection of Data; Description of Data: Graphs and Tables; Description of Data: Computations; Probability; Drawing Conclusions: Estimation; Drawing Conclusions: Hypothesis Testing; Relationships; Chi-Square for Two Categorical Variables; Correlation and Regression for Two Metric Variables; Rank Methods for Two Rank Variables; Analysis of Variance for Categorical and Rank Variables; Multivariate Analysis; Role of Statistics in Research and Society
An imaginative introduction to statistics, reorienting the course towards an understanding of statistical thinking and its meaning and use in daily life and work. Gudmund Iversen and Mary Gergen bring their years of experience and insight into teaching the subject, incorporating such innovations and insights as a sustained emphasis on the process of statistical analysis and what statistics can and cannot do as well as careful exposition of the ideas of developing statistical and graphical literacy. In the spirit of contemporary pedagogy and by using technology, the authors break down the traditional barriers of statistical formulas and lengthy computations encountered by students without strong quantitative skills. Further, formulas are grouped at the end of each chapter along with related problems, and, with only algebra as a prerequisite, the book is ideal for students in the liberal arts and the behavioural and social sciences.
Autor: Gudmund R. Iversen, Mary Gergen
Inhaltsangabe1 Statistics: Randomness and Regularity.- 1.1 Statistics: What's in a word?.- 1.2 Knowing how statistics is used: Goals for the reader.- Understanding what can go wrong.- Understanding statistical terms.- 1.3 Central ideas in statistics.- Randomness and regularity: Twins in tension.- Randomness in regularity.- Two examples in the study of randomness and regularity.- Probability: What are the chances?.- Variables: The names we give things.- Variables, values, and elements.- Theoretical variables and empirical variables.- Constants.- 1.4 Users of statistics.- 1.5 Relationship of statistics to mathematics, pencils, and computers.- 1.6 Summary.- Additional Readings.- Exercises.- 2 Collection of Data.- 2.1 Defining the variables.- 2.2 Observational data: Problems and possibilities.- Population versus sample.- Selection of the sample: Making sure the pot is stirred.- Random sample: What is it?.- Convenience sample: How to produce a "poor" sample.- Selecting proper samples.- Selection of variables on which to collect observational data.- 2.3 Errors and "errors" in collecting observational data.- Sampling error: The "error" that is not a mistake.- Nonresponse error: Result of rude, rushed, and reticent respondents.- Response errors.- 2.4 Experimental data: Looking for the causes of outcomes.- Experimental group and control group.- Selecting the experimental and control groups.- Problems with experimenting on people.- Role of statistics in experimentation.- Putting it all together: Does class size affect school performance?.- 2.5 Data matrix/Data file.- 2.6 Summary.- Additional Readings.- Exercises.- 3 Description of Data: Graphs and Tables.- 3.1 Graphs: Picturing data.- Creating statistical graphs.- Types of graphs.- 3.2 Categorical variables: Pie charts and bar graphs.- Graphing one categorical variable.- Graphing two categorical variables.- 3.3 Metric variables: Plots and histograms.- Graphing one metric variable.- Graphing two metric variables.- Time series plot.- 3.4 Creating maps from data.- 3.5 Graphing: Standards for excellence.- "The least ink": Is the simplest graph best?.- "Chartjunk": A new name for garbage.- Data density.- "Revelation of the complex".- 3.6 Tables: Turning can be timely.- 3.7 Summary.- Additional Readings.- Exercises.- 4 Description of Data: Computing Summary Statistics.- 4.1 Averages: Let us count the ways.- Mode: The hostess with the mostes'.- Median: Counting to the middle.- Mean: Balancing the seesaw.- Mode, median, or mean?.- 4.2 Variety: Measuring the spice of life.- Range: Lassoing the two extreme values.- Standard deviation: The crucial deviant.- 4.3 Standard error of the means.- 4.4 Standard scores: Comparing apples and oranges.- 4.5 Gain in simplicity, loss of information.- Replacing the data with a graph.- Replacing the data with a summary value.- 4.6 Real estate data: Out-of-sight prices.- 4.7 Summary.- Additional Readings.- Formulas.- Exercises.- 5 Probability.- 5.1 How to find probabilities.- Equally likely events.- Relative frequency.- Using subjective probabilities.- 5.2 Computations with probabilities.- Adding probabilities.- Multiplying probabilities.- 5.3 Odds: The opposite of probabilities.- 5.4 Probability distributions for discrete variables.- Binomial distribution.- Poisson distribution.- Hypergeometric distribution.- Displaying probabilities in graphs and tables.- Computations with probabilities.- 5.5 Probability distributions for continuous variables.- Standard normal distribution: The bell curve.- The t-distribution.- Chi-square distribution.- F-distribution.- Need for normally distributed data.- 5.6 Using probabilities to check on assumptions.- Is it a fair coin?.- Is it a fair workplace?.- Is it an evenly split electorate?.- 5.7 Decision analyis: Using probabilities to make decisions.- 5.8 Summary.- Additional Readings.- Formulas.- Exercises.- 6 Drawing Conclusions: Estimation.- 6.1 Sample statistic and population parameter.- 6.2 Point estimation.- What is a "good" point estimate

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Autor: Gudmund R. Iversen
ISBN-13:: 9780387946108
ISBN: 0387946101
Erscheinungsjahr: 30.04.1997
Verlag: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Gewicht: 1552g
Seiten: 735
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage 1997 ed
Sonstiges: Buch, 242x200x40 mm, 100 Tables, black and white; XVIII, 735 p.