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Tribology and Mechanics of Magnetic Storage Devices

Besorgungstitel | Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I
Bharat Bhushan
1774 g
243x163x58 mm

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Definition and History of Tribology.- 1.1.1 Definition.- 1.1.2 History.- 1.2 Industrial Significance of Tribology.- 1.3 Physics of Magnetic Recording.- 1.3.1 Basic Principle.- 1.3.2 Vertical Recording.- 1.3.3 Methods of Encoding Binary Information.- 1.3.4 Design Considerations.- Recording Density.- Reproduced Signal Amplitude.- Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 1.4 Magnetic Data-Storage Systems.- 1.4.1 History of Magnetic Recording.- Storage Hierarchy.- 1.4.2 Examples of Modern Data-Storage Systems.- Tape Drives.- Floppy Disk (Diskette) Drives.- Rigid Disk Drives.- 1.4.3 Head Materials.- Permalloys.- Mu-Metal and Hy-Mu 800B.- Sendust Alloys.- Alfenol Alloys.- Amorphous Magnetic Alloys.- Ferrites.- Some Examples of Head Constructions.- 1.4.4 Media Materials.- Flexible Media.- Rigid Disks.- Functional Requirements.- 1.4.5 Manufacturing Processes of Magnetic Media.- Particulate Tapes.- Particulate Floppy Disks.- Rigid Disks.- References.- 2. Solid Surface Characterization.- 2.1 The Nature of Surfaces.- 2.2 Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness.- 2.2.1 Average Roughness Parameters.- 2.2.2 Probability Distribution and Density Functions.- 2.2.3 Surface Height Distribution Function.- 2.2.4 Texture Descriptors.- 2.2.5 Distribution and Statistics of the Asperities and Valleys.- 2.2.6 Practical Considerations in Measurement of Roughness Parameters.- Long- and Short-Wavelength Filtering.- Measuring Length.- 2.3 Measurement of Surface Roughness.- 2.3.1 Mechanical Stylus Method.- Surface Mapping.- Measurement of Circular Surfaces.- Relocation.- Replication.- Sources of Errors.- 2.3.2 Optical Methods.- Taper-Sectioning Method.- Light-Sectioning Method.- Specular Reflection Methods.- Diffuse Reflection (Scattering) Methods.- Speckle Pattern.- Optical Interference Methods.- Digital Optical Profiler.- 2.3.3 Fluid Methods.- 2.3.4 Electrical Methods.- 2.3.5 Electron Microscopy Methods.- Reflection Electron Microscopy.- Integration of Backscattered Signal.- Stereomicroscopy.- 2.3.6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.- 2.3.7 Atomic Force Microscopy.- 2.3.8 Comparison of Measurement Methods.- 2.4 Measurement of Isolated Asperities.- 2.4.1 Optical Methods.- 2.4.2 Glide Test Methods.- 2.5 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Layers.- 2.5.1 Deformed Layer.- 2.5.2 Bielby Layer.- 2.5.3 Chemically-Reacted Layer.- 2.5.4 Physisorbed Layer.- 2.5.5 Chemisorbed Layer.- 2.5.6 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, and Wetting.- 2.5.7 Methods of Surface Characterization.- References.- 3. Contact between Solid Surfaces.- 3.1 Physical Properties of Polymers.- 3.1.1 Physical States of Polymers.- 3.1.2 Complex Modulus and Compliance.- 3.1.3 Creep and Relaxation Behavior.- 3.1.4 Temperature and Frequency Effects.- 3.2 Apparent and Real Area of Contact.- 3.3 Analysis of the Real Area of Contact.- 3.3.1 Elastic Contact.- 3.3.2 Limit of Elastic Deformation.- 3.3.3 Optimization of Mechanical Properties and Surface Roughness Parameters of Magnetic Media.- 3.3.4 Calculations of the Real Areas of Contact of Typical Particulate Magnetic Tapes.- Experimental Evidence of Elastic Contacts in Magnetic Tapes.- Changes in Contact Area Because of Tape-Surface Wear.- 3.3.5 Calculations of the Real Area of Contact of Typical Magnetic Rigid Disks.- Optimization of Relative Young s Moduli of Thin-Film Composite Structure.- 3.4 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact.- 3.4.1 Review of Measurement Techniques.- Electrical-Contact Resistance.- Optical Techniques.- Ultrasonic Technique.- Neutrographic Technique.- Paints and Radioactive Traces.- 3.4.2 Comparison of Different Measurement Techniques.- Calculation for Overestimation of the Contact Area by Various Optical Techniques.- Feasibility of Phase-Contrast Microscopy.- Selection of Optimum Measurement Technique.- 3.4.3 Measurement of Typical Magnetic Tapes.- Test Apparatus and Procedure.- Results and Discussion.- References.- 4. Friction.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Need for Controlled Friction.- 4.3 Friction Theories.- 4.3.1 T
Since January 1990, when the first edition ofthis first-of-a-kind book appeared, there has been much experimental and theoretical progress in the multi disciplinary subject of tribology and mechanics of magnetic storage devices. The subject has matured into a rigorous discipline, and many university tribology and mechanics courses now routinely contain material on magnetic storage devices. The major growth in the subject has been on the micro- and nanoscale aspects of tribology and mechanics. Today, most large magnetic storage industries use atomic force microscopes to image the magnetic storage components. Many companies use variations of AFMs such as friction force microscopes (FFMs) for frictional studies. These instruments have also been used for studying scratch, wear, and indentation. These studies are valuable in the fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena. In the second edition, I have added a new chapter, Chapter 11, on micro and nanoscale aspects of tribology and mechanics of magnetic storage compo nents. This chapter presents the state of the art of the micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics of magnetic storage components. In addition, typographical errors in Chapters 1 to 10 and the appendixes have been corrected. These additions update this book and make it more valuable to researchers of the subject. I am grateful to many colleagues and particularly to my students, whose work is reported in Chapter 11. I thank my wife, Sudha, who has been forbearing during the progress of the research reported in this chapter.

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